What is a Letter? Letter Types, How to Write a Letter?
LETTERIt is a type of letter sent to any friend, friend or public institutions in the distance. The letters contain feelings and thoughts that express wishes and desires.The narrative to be used in the letter is adjusted according to the cultural level of the person who will read it. The language to be used in a letter to a friend should, of course, be different from the language in the letter to be written in the big letter. (E. Kantemir, Written and Oral Expression, p. 255)The type of letters in our literature begins to develop during Tanzimat Literature. Especially letters written by Abdülhak Hamit TARHAN and Namık Kemal to each other are important and typical examples of this development. The letters of science, literature and politicians are also belge documents için because they reflect the characteristics of the era. (H. F. Gözler, Examples of Turkish and Literature Information, p. 513)Language and expression characteristics of the letter typeThe language and narrative characteristics of the letter vary according to the degree of closeness of the person to whom the letter is written and the content of the letter.The letter starts with an appropriate address for the person who is writing. The initial expression in the letter varies according to the intimacy of the interlocutor and whether the letter is a private, literary, business letter or official letter.After addressing in literary and private letters, the person who wrote the letter first gives information about his or her situation. In official letters and business letters, it is stated briefly why the letter was written.In the content part of the letter, the ones to be said are listed.Emotions and thoughts can be explained in detail in literary and private letters. This type of letter is a sincere and effective expression. In addition, the narrative in business letters or official letters is short and concise. In such letters, only requests or explanations are made.All letters and e-mails are completed with sentences that express either a greeting, respect or longing. In literary and private letters, a greeting about sincerity, friendship or a word awaiting the answer of his / her writing is used. In official letters, the greeting section is shaped according to the position of the author.Letters are classified into four groups:Special LettersLiterary LettersOfficial and Business LettersOpen Letters1) Special LettersA special letter is a kind of letter written to people in the vicinity, such as relatives and friends. In such letters, natural and sincere expression is at the forefront.Special letters written by artists and writers on general subjects are also called "literary letters".The following are the features to be considered when writing private letters:The paper to be written should be neat and clean in shape.The letter must be written with an ink or ballpoint pen."Date" should be placed in the upper right corner of the letter and "name of the place" written next to it.According to the general characteristics of the person to whom the letter will be sent (age, cultural level, degree of closeness, etc.), "appeal sentence" should be found."Name-Surname" should be written in the lower right corner of the letter and "signature" should be signed."Address" should be written in the lower left corner of the letter.2) Literary LettersLiterary letters; writers, their contents and forms of expression and special letters are separated and treated separately. In literary letters, there are literary and thought events of the period in which the letter was written. The author gives advice to others and guides. In ancient times, such personal literary letters were gathered under the name of "Letters" and published for the wider masses to read.Some of our writers and poets whose letters have been published in order to present their views in the field of thought and literature are as follows:Ali Şir Nevaî (XVth century)Kinalizade Ali (XVIth century)Veysi (XVII. Century)Ragıp Pasha (XVIIIth century)Namik Kemal (XIXth century)Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar (XX century)In addition, it is seen that written composition types (literary genres) such as criticism, travelogue, novel, story, poem were written in the style of letters.3) Official and Business Lettersa) Official Letters:With the official letters written by the authorities and legal entities; their written responses to citizens' applications. They look like business letters.The title of these letters is the full name of the written office or legal entity in the laws and regulations. In these letters, the date and the number and subject of the letter shall be indicated. If the letter is the answer, the number and date of the letter to which it is answered to the "interest" field and the purpose is written briefly to the "subject" field. After this is done, two or three lines are left and the letter is written.In official letters, a clear, precise, understandable language is used. If the end of the letter is written to the lower authority, please ask. ends. On the right side of the letter text is the author's name, surname and signature.b) Business Letters:It is called business letters between private individuals and business institutions and business institutions themselves. In these letters, regardless of the subject matter, there is a business or service. This is an order, sale, complaint, lending request, advice or information